You are here Definitions of Clinical Outcomes

Definitions of Clinical Outcomes


Ischemic stroke:
An acute focal infarction of the brain or retina, and does not include anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).

Criteria:

  1. Rapid onset of a new focal neurological deficit with clinical or imaging evidence of infarction and not attributable to a non-ischemic etiology (not associated with brain infection, trauma, tumor, seizure, severe metabolic disease, or degenerative neurological disease); or,
  2. Rapid worsening of an existing focal neurological deficit that is judged by the Investigator to be attributable to a new infarction. Criteria for symptoms attributable to new infarction may include symptoms that persist and are judged by the investigator to be attributable to new infarction, imaging evidence of infarction, or no evidence of a non-ischemic etiology.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA):
A neurological deficit of sudden onset, resolving completely, attributed to focal brain or retinal ischemia without evidence of associated acute focal infarction of the brain.

Criteria:
Rapid onset of a focal neurological deficit that is without evidence of acute focal infarction of the brain, and is not attributable to a non-ischemic etiology (brain infection, trauma, tumor, seizure, severe metabolic disease, or degenerative neurological disease).

Symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic stroke:
Any extravascular blood within an area of known acute/subacute ischemic infarction which is judged to be nontraumatic, and responsible for neurologic symptoms. To be considered symptomatic, the hemorrhagic transformation must be judged to be partially responsible for the subject's clinical neurologic presentation (i.e., the area of infarction is not adequate to explain the neurologic deficit, or a secondary neurologic deterioration occurred corresponding to the timing of hemorrhagic transformation).

Criteria (must meet both of the following):

  1. Imaging evidence (by CT or MR) of extravascular blood within the area of infarction.
  2. Symptoms judged to be related to the hemorrhagic transformation. Scenarios which may be judged as symptomatic:
  • If blood is already present on imaging at presentation, symptoms are out of proportion to what would be expected for the size and location of the infarct at presentation;
  • Clinical deterioration, defined by an increase of 4 points or more in the score on the NIHSS or leading to death, occurring after the initial ischemic event, and identified as the result of the hemorrhagic transformation; or
  • Mass effect secondary to the hemorrhagic transformation causing symptoms.

Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic stroke:
Any extravascular blood within an area of known acute/subacute ischemic infarct, judged to be nontraumatic without any related neurologic symptoms.

Criteria (must meet both of the following):

  1. Imaging evidence (by CT or MR) of extravascular blood within the area of infarct.
  2. No symptoms related to the hemorrhagic transformation, or clinical deterioration with less than a 4-point increase in score on the NIHSS judged to be related to the hemorrhagic transformation.

Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage:
Any extravascular blood in the brain parenchyma, judged to be nontraumatic, and not in the area of an acute/subacute ischemic infarct, associated with and identified as the predominant cause of new neurologic symptoms (including headache) or death. In the case of a mixed intracranial hemorrhage [Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), Subdural Hemorrhage (SDH) and/or Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH)], the event should be classified according to the primary site of hemorrhage by the judgment of the clinician. For example, if a patient has a large ICH with a small amount of SAH, and the ICH is felt to be the primary site of bleeding, this should be classified as ICH.

Criteria:
Evidence of hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma demonstrated by head imaging, surgery, or autopsy, which is not in the same territory of an underlying acute or subacute ischemic stroke, and is judged to be associated with any new neurologic symptoms (including headache) or leading to death.

Asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage:
An acute extravasation of blood into the brain parenchyma, judged to be nontraumatic, and not in an area of an acute/subacute ischemic infarct, without associated neurologic symptoms or leading to death. In the case of a mixed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, SAH, SDH and/or IVH), the event should be classified according to the primary site of hemorrhage by the judgment of the clinician. For example, if a patient has a large ICH with a small amount of SAH, and the ICH is felt to be the primary site of bleeding, this should be classified as ICH.

Criteria:
Evidence of hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma demonstrated by head imaging, surgery, or autopsy, which is not in the same territory of an underlying acute or subacute ischemic stroke, and is not judged to be associated with any new neurologic symptoms or leading to death.

Other symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage:
Any extravascular blood within the cranium judged to be nontraumatic, and the predominant cause of the clinical deterioration or that led to death. Other Intracranial Hemorrhage is defined as an acute extravasation of blood into the subarachnoid space, epidural space, subdural space, or intraventricular space with associated symptoms (including headache). In the case of a mixed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, SAH, SDH and/or IVH), the event should be classified according to the primary site of hemorrhage by the judgment of the clinician. For example, if a patient has a large ICH with a small amount of SAH, and the ICH is felt to be the primary site of bleeding, this should be classified as ICH.

Criteria:
Evidence of hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, epidural space, or subdural space demonstrated by head imaging, surgery, or autopsy.

Other asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage:
An acute extravasation of blood into the subarachnoid space, epidural space, subdural space or intraventricular space without associated symptoms, and judged to be nontraumatic. In the case of of a mixed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, SAH, SDH and/or IVH), the event should be classified according to the primary site of hemorrhage by the judgment of the clinician. For example, if a patient has a large ICH with a small amount of SAH, and the ICH is felt to be the primary site of bleeding, this should be classified as ICH.

Criteria:
Evidence of hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, epidural space, or subdural space demonstrated by head imaging, surgery, or autopsy. In the case of a mixed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, SAH, SDH and/or IVH), the event should be classified according to the primary site of hemorrhage by the judgment of the clinician. For example, if a patient has a large ICH with a small amount of SAH, and the ICH is felt to be the primary site of bleeding, this should be classified as ICH.

Myocardial infarction with coronary revascularization:
Evidence of myocardial necrosis in a clinical setting consistent with myocardial ischemia treated with coronary revascularization, such as angioplasty/stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), within 14 days.

Criteria:
The diagnosis of MI will be based on an algorithm developed from the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (Circulation 2007 116:2634-2653) that takes into account 5 categories of clinical information from the acute event: rise and/or fall of cardiac biomarkers, ECG abnormalities, clinical setting, imaging evidence, and pathology.

Myocardial infarction without coronary revascularization:
Evidence of myocardial necrosis in a clinical setting consistent with myocardial ischemia not treated with coronary revascularization within 14 days.

Criteria:
The diagnosis of MI will be based on an algorithm developed from the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (Circulation 2007 116:2634-2653) that takes into account 5 categories of clinical information from the acute event: rise and/or fall of cardiac biomarkers, ECG abnormalities, clinical setting, imaging evidence, and pathology

Coronary revascularization without myocardial infarction:
A procedure to improve coronary blood flow for documented coronary artery disease, but with no documentation of new post-randomization myocardial infarction.

Criteria:
Documented coronary angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery for demonstrated or presumed coronary artery disease.

Major hemorrhage other than intracranial hemorrhage (life threatening or non-life-threatening):
A hemorrhagic event, judged to be nontraumatic, that results in intraocular bleeding causing loss of vision, the need for a transfusion of two or more units of red cells or the equivalent amount of whole blood, or the need for hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization. This may include bleeding events related to surgical procedures but not those related to accidental trauma. Life-threatening hemorrhagic events will be defined as those that are fatal or require use of intravenous inotropic medication to maintain blood pressure, interventional treatment (including surgical, endoscopic or endovascular interventions), or transfusion of four or more units of red cells or the equivalent amount of whole blood. Non-life-threatening hemorrhagic events will be defined as those classified as major hemorrhagic events but not as life-threatening.

Minor hemorrhage other than intracranial hemorrhage:
All hemorrhagic events leading to interruption of therapy or discontinuation of the study drug but not classifiable as major hemorrhagic events. This may include bleeding events related to surgical procedures but not those related to accidental trauma.

Ischemic Vascular death:
Death due to ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, bowel or limb infarction, or any death not readily attributable to a non-ischemic cause.

Hemorrhagic Vascular death:
Death due to intracranial or systemic hemorrhage.

Other serious adverse event:
Any adverse event, not belonging to the other outcome event categories, that is fatal or life threatening, is permanently or substantially disabling, requires or prolongs hospitalization, results in a congenital anomaly, or requires intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage.